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Friday, December 23, 2011

sume da start ad blog...so nk jugak arh bwt...da lme da xgne blog ney...kah3..

ap ke bodo ak ckp ney...

Tuesday, February 16, 2010

Of Wants And Desire

I was thinking about this last night, before I went to sleep. Somehow, I'm beginning to see the folly of one of the things my parents used to teach me. They had always told me that if you want something so bad, and you couple that desire with efforts, there is no reason for you not to get it in the end. In essence, you can get everything you want. The question is just whether or not you've done everything to earn it.

Now, I respect my parents very much. Firstly, for all of their love and affection, But secondly, for bringing me up the way they did, with strict emphasis on hard work and discipline. I remember when I was a kid, my mother would make me go to school even when I was sick, so long as it was not contagious. My father would say to her, "Kalau budak tu pergi sekolah pun, apa yang dia boleh belajar, sakit macam tu?" (Even if she went to school, what can she possibly learn in that illness?) And her answer had always stuck with me ever since,

"Biarlah dia belajar susah nak dapatkan ilmu. Nak pandai kena susah sikit." (Let her at least learn that life isn't always easy. If you want to know, you have to suffer for a bit)

And that must have been one of the most influential drives I have ever had. I'm sure I whined about many things in the past, but the whole time, there was never any doubt in me that all the hardship will pay. If not soon, than maybe later. It will pay. The way my parents taught me to look at life, everything depends on your efforts. If you get it, that means you've earned it. If you didn't get it, that means you haven't worked hard enough.

I only began to realize last night, how wrong that is. My parents' perspective, even when it has often prompted many a positive result, only pays those whose achievement corresponds exactly with what they want. And I feel that to be rather misleading. Perhaps we want X, and we do everything within our means to get X, but we end up with Y instead. That doesn't mean we have failed. Neither does that mean we did not put enough efforts. Sometimes, X is not always the best thing for us and maybe Y is. When we get Y instead of X, we should not be made to feel as if we have failed just because we did not get X.

It all comes down to the debate of gift and earning. I believe we do not get good things because we earn them. We get good things because the Ultimate Owner of good things is ever Merciful. All of our hard work alone does not bring us anything in the end. It simply goes to show or prove that we are deserving and worthy of such mercy. So yes, hard work is important but that does not provide a sure guarantee for the realization of our wants and desire.

I think it is vital to get that straight because we often see around us (or we do it ourselves) how people become dejected upon not achieving what they've worked so hard for. At times like that, my parents' philosophy would seem so harsh and cruel. "You got a B for your test? Tu tak study la tu. Kalau study, mesti dapat A!" I mean, we don't know how hard some people work but still end up with mediocre exam results. When that happens, they should not be expected to feel as though they have failed, not only themselves, but all around them. Perhaps those test grades are the best things for us. Be content with has happened. Use it as a basis for a better future.

So in the end, there is really nothing to get so upset about. Or nothing to get so ecstatic about. Kipling described it aptly, If you can meet with Triumph and Disaster/And treat those two impostors just the same... Yours is the Earth and everything that's in it. I interpret the the second verse like this: everything in the world becomes yours simply because you have no wants of it. If that makes sense. I was reminded of another saying; the richest man is not he who has the most, but he who wants the least. So if you don't get what you want, worry not, and be not upset. Chances are, you've already got more than enough anyway.

taken from here

Saturday, February 13, 2010


for the first time on my daily log...
nothing to do...
chatting with my friends..
eat and out..
dating with my mother..

Wednesday, February 10, 2010


-log:like a journal..
daily-have done@plan 2 do
-reflection:personal thoughts..
-interesting reading list:article/newspaper...give personal c0mmnt

Tuesday, February 9, 2010

Synopsis of Gulp and Gasp


This is one of twelve "Classic Spirals", from the established series for reluctant readers with a track record of over 25 years. It features dynamic plots and storylines, which encourage readers to pick them up again and again. It includes engaging themes without being immature or patronising and attractive cover designs in new paperback style binding are designed to motivate pupils. Short but substantial chapters are provided to give a sense of achievement in reading whole texts. Clearly laid out text, without illustrations and activities, encourages focus on reading and enables low achievers to improve at their own pace.

taken from here

Monday, February 8, 2010


taken from here


1. Theme

It refers to what the play means as opposed to what happens (plot) or it refers to the main idea/ though/ theme within the play. Sometimes the theme is clearly stated in the title. It may be stated through dialogue by a character acting as the playwright`s voice. Or it may be the theme is less obvious and emerges only after some study or thought. The abstract issues and feelings that grow out of the dramatic action.

2. Plot

It refers to the order of the events that happen in a play. In actuality it refers to what happens rather than what it means. The plot is usually structured with acts and scenes and the action and movement in the play begins from the initial entanglement, through rising action, climax, and falling action to resolution. The interest generated by the plot varies for different kinds of plays. The plot of the drama is shown in the `through-line` of the drama - its beginning, middle and end - although it does not have to be presented in a linear structure. The characters in a play are also part of the plot. The action of the drama consists in the events that the characters take part in as they act the play. The content of the drama lies in the themes it deals with, example bullying, the responsibilities of power and the bravery of ordinary people.

3. Audience

Theatre requires an audience, since live audience also has an important impact on the way plays are created. The physical presence of an audience can change a performance, inspire actors, and create expectations. The presence of live actors on the stage in front of live audiences sets it apart from modern day films and television. The presence of live actors on the stage in front of live audiences sets it apart from modern day films and television. Hence, authors calculate for the effect of the audience rather than for the silent response. With this in mind, most plays written deal with topics that are timely.

4. Dialogues

It refers to the word choices made by the playwright and the enunciation of the actors delivering the lines. Language and dialogues delivered by the characters moves the plot and action along, provides exposition, defines the distinct characters. Thus, in short, the dialogues also provide the substance of a play.

5. Stagecraft

The stage creates its effects in spite of, and in part because of, definite physical limitations. Setting and action tend to be suggestive rather than panoramic or colossal. Both setting and action may be little more than hints for the spectator to fill out.

6. Convention

This is the starting point of the theatrical performance. This element is considered as the domain of the playwright in theatre. It is the pure process by which the playwright`s work is brought to realization by the director, actors, designers, technicians, dancers, musicians and any other collaborators that come together on the script, scenario, or plan. This is the works in progress stage.

7. Genres

There are different genres of plays, which are divided into the categories of tragedy, comedy, melodrama, and tragicomedy. Each of these genre/forms can be further subdivide by style and content.

Tragedy: Tragedy is an imitation of an action that is serious, complete and of a certain magnitude. The tragedy is presented in the form of action, which will arouse pity and fear in the audience as it witnesses the action. It allows for an arousal of this pity and fear and creates an affect of purgation or catharsis of these strong emotions by the audience. Tragedy is serious by nature in its theme and deals with profound problems. In classic tragedy and the modern problem play, tragedy is a play in which a central character faces, and is finally defeated by, some overwhelming threat or disaster. The hero or heroine is an active participant in the event through a tragic flaw, a shortcoming of the protagonist, i.e., pride, rashness, indecision.

This reinforces the emphasis on action derived from character, which explains the psychological and moral interest of much great drama. Another common type of tragedy focuses not on how the protagonist brings about but on how he meets his fate. Tragedy will involve the audience in the action and create tension and expectation. Tragedy so defined celebrates the triumph of the human spirit over physical necessity. With the climax and final end the audience will have learned a lesson and will leave the theatre not depressed or sullen, but uplifted and enlightened.

Comedy: Comedy should have the view of a "comic spirit" and is physical and energetic. Traditionally Indian comedy and humour is defined as a play that bestows on its characters good fortune, or more popularly, a happy ending. In comedy there is absence of pain and emotional reactions. Different kinds of comedy illustrate different ways a playwright may leaven grim truth with humor or temper the playful with the serious. There are situation comedies, romantic comedies, sentimental comedies, dark comedies, comedy of manners, and pure farce. The comic devices used by playwrights of comedy are: exaggeration, incongruity, surprise, repetition, wisecracks, and sarcasm. It may deal with the loves and jealousies of the young, and the reluctance other elders to give their blessings or the necessary funds. The behavior of the characters presented in comedy is ludicrous and sometimes absurd and the result in the audience is one of correction of behaviors.

Melodrama: Melodrama is drama of disaster and differs from tragedy significantly; the forces outside of the protagonist cause all of the significant events of the plot. All of the aspects of related guilt or responsibility of the protagonist are removed. The protagonist is usually a victim of circumstance. He is acted upon by the antagonist or anti-hero and suffers without having to accept responsibility and inevitability of fate. Melodrama has a sense of strict moral judgment, where all issues are resolved in a well-defined way. The good characters are rewarded and the bad characters are punished in a means that fits the crime.

Tragicomedy: Tragicomedy is the most life like of all of the genres. It is non-judgmental and ends with no absolutes. It focuses on character relationships and shows society in a state of continuous flux. There is a mix of comedy and tragedy side by side in these types of plays.

8. Characters

These are the people presented in the play that are involved in the perusing plot. Each character has a distinct personality, age, appearance, beliefs, socio economic background and language in the play. A playwright`s success ultimately depends on his ability to create a character that an actor can "bring to life". Thus, the way an actor plays a role, using his/her acting skills to create a character in a drama, is known as characterization.

9. Music

It means the sound, rhythm and melody of the speeches. Music can encompass the rhythm of dialogue and speeches in a play or can also mean the aspects of the melody and music compositions as with musical theatre. Each theatrical presentation delivers music, rhythm and melody in its own distinctive manner. But, music can be included to mean all sounds in a production. Music can expand to all sound effects, the actor`s voices, songs, and instrumental music played as underscore in a play. In the aspects of the musical the songs are used to push the plot forward and move the story to a higher level of intensity. Composers and lyricist work together with playwrights to strengthen the themes and ideas of the play. Character`s wants and desires can be strengthened for the audience through lyrics and music.

10. Spectacle

The spectacle in the theatre can involve all of the aspects of visual elements of the production of a play; the scenery, costumes, and special effects in a production. The visual elements of the play created for theatrical event. The qualities determined by the playwright that create the world and atmosphere of the play for the audience`s eye. It also refers to the shaping of dramatic material, setting, or costumes in a specific manner. Each play will have its own unique and distinctive behaviors, dress, and language of the characters. The style of a playwright is shown in the choices made in the world of the play: the kinds of characters, time periods, settings, language, methods of characterization, use of symbols, and themes.

11. Dramatic Structure

It refers to the form of drama and the way the story is told, the way the characters play their parts, and/or the way the themes are explored. Dramatic structure involves the overall framework or method by which the playwright uses to organize the dramatic material and or action. It is important for playwrights to establish themes but the challenge comes in applying structure to the ideas and inspirations. Understanding basic principals of dramatic structure can be invaluable to the playwright. Most modern plays are structured into acts that can be further divided into scenes. The pattern most often used is a method by where the playwright sets up early on in the beginning scenes all of the necessary conditions and situations out of which the later conditions will develop. Generally the wants and desires of one character will conflict with another character. With this method the playwright establishes a pattern of complication, rising action, climax, and resolution. This is commonly known as cause to effect arrangement of incidents.

12. Contrast

The use of contrast in drama productions like stillness contrasted with activity, or silence contrasted with noise - is a useful way to focus the audience`s attention. A drama being played with no change of pace or rhythm, mostly fails to hold on to the audience`s interest, but can be brought to life with the use of contrasting sights and sounds. An example of such contrast could be in a courtroom drama.

13. Symbols

Dramas are produced to a great extent through the use of symbols - or representations - standing in for real things. Many of the following can be understood as symbols; like props, gestures, expressions, costume, lighting and setting.

Most commonly in most of the drams screened today, the audience will find a mixture of all the elements discussed above. Since many playwrights tend to utilize a bit of all the elements. But the examples cited above are plays demonstrating one predominant element almost to the exclusion of the others. Thus, artistic consideration in playwriting requires selection and arrangement. Art is skill acquired by experience, study, and clear observations. Before writing a play it is important to understand the medium for which one writes. Writing for the stage demands an understanding of two fundamentals: the essence of drama and the nature of theatre.

taken from here